Canada – a state in North America
WHERE TO STAY
In Canada, there is no single classification of hotels, and the approximate level of the hotel is indicated by letters. For example, T (Tourist Class) – budget and budget hotels and motels, F (First Class) – the usual “three-star”, S (Superior) – the average hotels of four “stars”, and D (Deluxe) – five well-deserved “stars” “.
In Canada – one of the best camping systems in the world. Cities for tourists are near all major cities and all national parks.
SEA AND BEACHES
Canada is not a country for a beach holiday, but still 5 Canadian beaches deserve Blue Flag as part of an international program for the environmental quality of beaches (one of them is on the South Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, while the other 4 are located on the coast in Toronto) .
For millennia, the territory of Canada was inhabited by Indian and Eskimo tribes. It is believed that the first Europeans to set foot on Canadian land (Newfoundland Island) around 1000 AD er., were the Icelandic Vikings, but they could not colonize the country.
In 985, the east coast of present-day Canada reached the Norwegians, and in the 11th century – the Normans. In the 15th century the English got here. In 1497 and 1498, the Italian navigator Giovanni Kaboto reached the shores of Newfoundland and North America, and acted on a patent from the English king Henry VII. A little later these places reached the expedition of the Portuguese, Bristol merchants and Florentines. European sailors engaged in fishing in the local waters and founded minor settlements.
However, the first traveler who discovered Canada and its hinterland, is considered the French navigator Jacques Cartier, who appeared on the eastern shores of North America in the early 16th century. Jacques Carthage declared the lands he discovered to be the property of the French crown and called them Canada. In 1603, the expedition of the French geographer Samuel de Champlain entered into trade with the local population. The main product that the Indians supplied the Europeans, was furs. In 1605, Port Royal was founded on the coast of the Bay of Fundy by the de Champlain expedition. In 1608, Fort Quebec was founded. In 1612, Samuel de Champlain was appointed as the representative of the French authorities in Canada. Numerous trading companies began to participate in colonization, and in 1642 the city of Montreal was founded – the center of the fur trade of French lands in North America. In 1663, Canada became the official colony of France.
The British also succeeded in colonization. In 1583, the island of Newfoundland was declared an English colony, in 1627 another colony was founded on the islands of the southeastern coast of present-day Canada – Nova Scotia. The British began to support the Indians, who suffered from diseases introduced by Europeans and from the dominance of French traders. For many years between England and France continued the struggle for the Canadian territory. It was only in 1760, after a long Seven Years War, that France capitulated and, according to the Paris Peace Treaty of 1763, recognized Canada as British possession. However, the French, who originally inhabited the valley of the St. Lawrence River, did not leave. Under the British, their rights were significantly limited, but in 1774 the British authorities adopted the Quebec Act, which retained the rights of the Catholic Church, French civil law, and French language in the province of Quebec, where a large part of the French Canadian population lived.
In 1775-1783, the struggle for independence from the British crown began in the British colonies neighboring Canada. In these colonies, united under the name of the United States of America, in 1776 independence from England was proclaimed. So-called loyalists arrived to fight the revolutionaries from England. For their placement in Canada were allocated land. With the help of the Loyalists living in Canada and after the War of Independence in 1791, a new “Constitutional Act” was adopted, which divided Canada into two parts – Lower Canada with a predominance of the French population and Upper Canada, inhabited almost exclusively by the British. Both colonies received a constitutional arrangement with two legislative chambers. French civil law and the privileges of the Catholic Church remained in Lower Canada, but the main privileges were nevertheless given to the British.
At the beginning of the 19th century, armed uprisings of the French Republicans broke out in Lower and Upper Canada, but they were suppressed. After that, the British authorities proposed to unite Upper and Lower Canada in order to strengthen the presence of British culture and assimilate the French population. In 1840, the Union Act was adopted, proclaiming the unification of Upper and Lower Canada into a single colony.
In 1846, the United Kingdom and the United States agreed to proclaim the 49th north parallel the border dividing the United States and the west of British North America.