El Salvador – a state in Central America
WHERE TO STAY
There are hotels in all major cities and tourist centers. The average price for accommodation – from $ 15 per night in a room with a bed, toilet and shower. Availability of additional amenities directly affects the cost. For example, an air-conditioned room will cost twice as much as without it. Quite often, a fee is charged not per room, but per person. That is, you can live for $ 10 in the same room, and with a friend or wife (husband) for 20. For the same money, you can rent two rooms in the same hotel, one for each.
In some small towns there are guest houses. These are private houses where the owners rent part of the rooms to visitors. A toilet with a shower is common here, located in the courtyard. Price – from $ 10-12, but no one forbids bargaining. If you’re lucky, the Internet can be found in such a house. The possibility of using them is better to negotiate with the owners immediately, so that later you will not be required to pay extra.
When visiting national parks, you can spend the night in them by setting up a tent in specially designated areas equipped with running water and a toilet. It is not the tent itself that is paid for, but the numbers of those who spend the night. The cost is $ 2-4 per person.
Approximately from the 1st to the 7th century AD e. On the territory of present-day Salvador, the Mayan tribes lived, and then numerous tribal associations of the Na’ua Uta-Aztec language family came there. The Nahua culture fell under the influence of the Maya, and later experienced the invasion of Toltec migrants, as a result of which a hybrid Pipili culture was formed, which created the state of Cuscatlan. By the arrival of the Spaniards, the Pipilius already had quite differentiated social classes: know, traders, artisans, plebeians, slaves.
In 1524, an associate of the conqueror of Mexico Hernando Cortes, Pedro de Alvarado, invaded this territory. In 1525, the city of San Salvador was founded. Only by 1528 the Spaniards managed to gain a foothold there, and by the 1540s they suppressed the resistance of the Nahua Indians.
From 1560 to 1821, the territory was part of the captaincy general of Guatemala.
The basis of the economy of El Salvador in the colonial era was agriculture. The colony specialized in the export of indigo and cocoa.
Two attempts by the local Creoles to overthrow the colonial regime (in 1811 and 1814) were suppressed by the Spanish authorities, but in 1821, following Mexico, Central America declared itself independent and became part of the Mexican Empire, and in 1823 withdrew from it. It was created a federal state of the United Provinces of Central America, which included modern Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. This federative republic did not exist for long – the internal struggle and war led to its disintegration.
Since 1839, El Salvador is an independent republic.
The history of El Salvador in the 19th century is full of numerous coups linked to the continuous struggle between conservatives and liberals, as well as attempts to restore the federation of the republics of Central America, which led to constant wars and conflicts between these republics.
So, in 1885, El Salvador (with the help of Costa Rica and Nicaragua) repelled a major attack by Guatemala (supported by Honduras). Guatemalan troops were defeated, and the Guatemalan president Barrios, who commanded them, was killed in battle.
From the second half of the 19th century, the production and export of coffee became the basis of the economy of El Salvador. For the development of this industry built railways, connecting areas of coffee plantations with seaports. The second major crop was maize (for domestic consumption). Rice, sugarcane, legumes, and cotton were also grown. Cattle breeding (cattle and pigs) was developing in the northern part of the country.
In the early 20s. XX century. American capital has achieved dominant positions in the economy of El Salvador.
The first shoots of democracy in El Salvador appeared in 1927 after the coming to power of President Pio Romero Bosque (Pio Romero Bosque), who implemented the reforms, which resulted in a pluralistic political system. The next president, Arturo Araujo, was elected by Salvadorans in January 1931 out of six candidates, each of whom had his own political and economic program. Arauho initiated an investigation into the financial fraud in the Salvador army, which led to a military coup in December 1931. The vice-president of the country Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez knew about the plans of the conspirators, he became the head of state. Thus, the short period of democracy that existed between 1927 and 1931 ended with the establishment of the military dictatorship of Hernandez Martinez.
As a result of the actions of Martínez aimed at the destruction of political freedoms, the first communist uprising in America occurred in 1932 – 40 thousand peasants under the leadership of Farabundo Martí came out against the regime, but the uprising was suppressed with the help of the most severe repression.