Portugal - the most western state in continental Europe
SHOPPING Shops are open on weekdays from 9.00 to 19.00, a break - from 13.00 to 15.00. On Saturdays, the shops close at 13.00 (in December - at 19.00). Some…

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Hungary - a state in Central Europe
SHOPPING From Hungary, you can bring Tokay wine, "Unicum" - a bitter tonic tincture of herbs, crystal products, embroidery, and glazed dishes. Traditional souvenirs - products of national craftsmen, ceramics,…


Malaysia – a state in Southeast Asia

Large department stores and supermarkets work from 10.00 to 21-22.00 without lunch, regular stores – from 9.00 to 18.00-19.00. Some large stores are open around the clock.
The most popular souvenirs from Malaysia are tin and silverware, as well as products from batik. As a gift you can buy wicker and wood-carved products from the island of Borneo. Gold in Malaysia is sold in the 20th or 24th sample. The workmanship is very high, and the products themselves have a beautiful design.
An interesting, but dangerous souvenir from Malaysia – arrows and a pipe from which they are allowed. This weapon is still used by the natives in the jungle, after having smeared the arrowheads with poison. As a gift, you can buy bright kites, which Malays are very fond of launching into the sky.
Be careful with buying stuffed animals and dried insects in souvenir shops: many species are protected by the state, and you never know exactly which ones. But in a reputable store it is quite possible to purchase a motley exotic butterfly in a frame under glass.
When buying products made of gold, be sure to require a check, which indicates the gold content and weight of the product.
The most profitable to buy souvenirs in local markets, each of which specializes in something special depending on the direction.
The hotels are not bad, most of them are either recently built or reconstructed. Hotels are the most diverse – from skyscrapers to bungalows, there are lots of hotels in the world “chains”.
The hotel bases of Langkawi and Penang differ little from each other. Everywhere there are hotels of 3, 4 and 5 “stars”, the only thing – there are practically no bungal-type hotels in Penang.
In Borneo, the hotel base is smaller, but mostly 5 * hotels prevail in it. They are much cheaper than the “fives” of Langkawi and Penang, and they are no different in terms of level and comfort. Each hotel has a large area, many additional services and entertainment.
Up Last modified: 09/01/2010
The beaches of Malaysia are sandy, mostly all free. Umbrella and sun bed are also provided free of charge.
The beaches offer a huge selection of entertainment: riding on a catamaran, parasailing, diving, fishing.
Swimming in the sea as a whole is safe, since most of the beaches are framed by coral reefs, but outside of them are powerful currents, especially strong in the South China Sea.
Early period
Historians claim that the ancestors of modern Malaysians came to Malaysia from southern China between 2500 and 1000 BC.
At the beginning of our era, thanks to the strengthening of international trade, the Strait of Malacca became an ideal place to meet Indian and Chinese merchants. Indian merchant ships sailed from the south-west, and Chinese – from the north-east winds. Both those and others lingered for some time in the strait, and with a change in the direction of the wind they went back. Due to stable commercial relations with the population of countries located on both sides of the strait, trade settlements began to emerge, separate groups of merchants had a dominant role in the economic life of the region.
From the 7th century to the 11th century, Srivijaya was the most powerful state in the region of the Malacca Strait, which was located in the south-eastern part of Sumatra Island. The inscriptions on the stones, which scientists refer to the VII century, were found in the territory of this kingdom and are the oldest version of the Malay language.
Malacca Sultanate and Late States
At the end of the XIV century, the state of Srivijaya fell under the influence of the Indonesian empire Majapahit, and then completely ceased to exist along with Majapahit. In 1402 (or 1403), the Malacca Sultanate was founded by the prince Majapahit Paramesvara on the Malacca Peninsula with the capital in Malacca. Already in the early years of its existence, the Malacca Sultanate was diplomatically recognized by the Chinese emperor, which contributed to its survival and prosperity. The adoption of Malacca Islam in the middle of the 15th century provided it with support from Indian and Arab Muslims.
The 15th century was the heyday of the Malacca Sultanate, which focused on the development of international trade and the function of the main warehouse and transit point throughout Southeast Asia. The influence of the local Muslim merchants on the islands of the Malay Archipelago was so great that the Malay language became a universal way of communication and the spread of Islam in the region.
The Portuguese, who wanted to control the spice trade, reached India in 1498, and in 1511 attacked the Sultanate of Malacca. Sultan and his supporters were forced to flee. A few years later, representatives of the ruling dynasty of Malacca elected Johor in the extreme south of the peninsula as their seat. Then on the territory of the Malacca Peninsula several sultanates were formed, of which Johor was the most powerful.