Luxembourg (Luxembourg) – a state in Western Europe
Luxembourg will please shopping lovers. Fashion victims will find here everything you could want. Clothes, bags, shoes of famous designers are presented here.
I go shopping, should pay attention to the hours of their work. Most stores are open from Monday to Friday from 9:00 to 18:00, a break from 12.00 to 14.00 (some shops on Mondays start working only from 14.00), on Saturdays from 9.00 to 12.00. Large supermarkets are open from 9:00 to 22:00.
WHERE TO STAY
Luxembourg offers a large selection of hotels of various classes, from luxurious to the most simple, but cute and cozy.
An alternative accommodation option may be the rental of houses and apartments. This is not yet very popular among Russians, but it is very common among Europeans. Real estate objects can be rented in any area of the city, on a family or on a company, for every taste and every purse, focusing also on the “number of stars”, as well as when choosing a hotel.
You can also stay in hostels, campgrounds and private guesthouses.
At the end of the 7th century, the population of the territory of modern Luxembourg was converted to Christianity by Rev. Willibrord, who founded a Benedictine monastery there. In the Middle Ages, the land is alternately incorporated into the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia, then into the Holy Roman Empire, and later – into Lorraine.
In 963, he gained independence through the exchange of strategic territories. The fact is that on its territory there was a fortified castle – Lisilinburg (Little Fortress), which marked the beginning of the state.
The favorable geographical position contributed to the active growth of the settlement, and it soon turned into a real city. However, the status and rights of the city of Luxembourg received only in 1244.
In 1354 the county of Luxembourg became a duchy.
In 1437, as a result of the marriage of a relative of Conrad with the German king Albert II, the duchy of Luxembourg was transferred to the Hapsburg dynasty. In 1443, Elizabeth Gerlitz was forced to cede this possession to the duke of Burgundy. The power of the Habsburgs was restored only in 1477. In 1555 it fell to the Spanish king Philip II and, together with Holland and Flanders, fell under the rule of Spain.
The city occupies an important strategic position in the heart of Europe has repeatedly passed from hand to hand: in 1506-1684 and 1697-1714. it belonged to Spain, in the years 1684-1697 and 1794-1815. was part of the territorial possessions of France, and in 1714-1794. was under Austrian oppression.
Six years after the start of the French Revolution, Luxembourg once again passed over to France, so that the state experienced all the vicissitudes of fate with the French – the Directory and Napoleon.
With the fall of Napoleon, French rule in Luxembourg ended. In 1815, in accordance with the decision of the Congress of Vienna, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was created in the territories adjacent to the city of Luxembourg, which was incorporated into the confederation of independent states – the German Union.
In 1842, Willem II signed a treaty with Prussia, according to which Luxembourg became a member of the Customs Union. This step significantly improved the economic and agricultural development of the duchy, the infrastructure was restored, the railways appeared.
In 1841, Luxembourg was granted a constitution, which, however, did not meet the wishes of the population. The French revolution of 1848 had a strong influence on autonomy, since under its influence Willem bestowed a more liberal constitution, which was amended in 1856.
With the collapse of the confederation in 1866, Luxembourg became a fully sovereign state. Officially, this happened on September 9, 1867. A little earlier, on April 29, 1867, an agreement on the status of Luxembourg was signed at an international conference in London between Russia, Great Britain, France, Prussia and a number of other states. Under the Treaty, the crown of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was recognized as the hereditary possession of the house of Nassau, and the duchy itself was determined by an “eternally neutral” state.
With the death of Willem III in 1890, the Netherlands was left without a male heir, so the Grand Duchy passed over to Adolf, Duke of Nassau, and then to his son Willem, who died in 1912. During the years of government, they had little interest in matters of government, but Maria Adelaide, the daughter of Willem, developed vigorous activity there.
During the First World War, Luxembourg remained neutral, although in 1914 Germany occupied it. The troops of the German Empire held him for several years.
Luxembourg had the same sad fate during World War II, the city was captured by the fascist troops in May 1940 and annexed to Hitler’s Reich in August 1942. In response, the population declared a general strike, to which the Germans responded with mass repressions.